The sequence of all the events involved in reproduction in the reproductive system in a female is called the menstrual cycle.

Regular and proper functioning of the menstrual cycle indicates that the woman is fit and healthy. Irregular, painful, or heavy menstrual bleeding often indicates an underlying health issue or hormonal imbalance. 

The cycle is divided into three main phases:

Follicular phase (before the release of the egg): Day 1 to day 5

Pre-ovulatory phase (release of the egg): Day 6 to day 14

Post ovulatory phase (after the release of the egg): day 15 t day 28



It is estimated that 3 out of every 4 women experience PMS or Premenstrual Syndrome.


It has a wide range of symptoms and may differ from one woman to another. These include:

  1. Tender breasts
  2. Mood swings
  3. Depression
  4.  Anxiety
  5. Headaches
  6. Diarrhea
  7. Food cravings
  8. Fatigue
  9. Bloating
  10. Constipation


Hormonal imbalance

If you are constantly under stress, hormonal imbalances occur in the body. One of the first indicators of a hormonal imbalance in your body is when your period is heavier than usual, irregular, or very painful. On the other hand, a proper balance of hormones improves your sleep, increases your energy levels, and makes you feel well overall.


Adrenal glands

Stress produces a hormone called cortisol which enables the body to respond to any threat or stressful event or situation. When too much of this hormone is produced, it impacts the sex hormones- progesterone and estrogen.

Progesterone makes cortisol. When too much cortisol is produced by the body due to stress, the levels of progesterone decrease in the body which causes an increase in estrogen. This causes many women to have irregular periods or miss their periods.


Thyroid function

This is another important factor responsible for healthy menstruation. It is necessary to have a proper balance of the thyroid hormones as an underactive and overactive thyroid gland can both produce negative symptoms which affect the menstrual health.



A woman’s menstrual cycle can tell a lot about her health. A healthy menstrual flow indicates the proper functioning of the thyroid and metabolic health.It is extremely crucial to treat any underlying issue that may be causing irregularities in the menstrual cycle as it affects your behavior, mood and overall well-being.